THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF MOSCOW
HISTORY OF CREATING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF MOSCOW
The first works on Moscow urban area three-dimensional modeling were performed by Mosgorgeotrest in 2005-2006. This was a pilot project of Moscow International Business Center (MIBC) also known as Moscow-city. Information resources of the Unified Cartographic Groundwork of Moscow (Moscow EGKO – as transliterated from Russian - or Moscow UCG) and materials of the Citywide Remote Sensing Data Bank (Moscow OBDDZ – as transliterated from Russian - or Moscow CRSDB) were used as initial data.
In order to improve architectural and construction design, the project was later supplemented with a pedestrian tourist route from the business center to the Neskuchny Garden.
Mosgorgeotrest professionals created a terrain model, took photos, modeled and textured building facades, and worked out architectural monuments in detail. The project was successful, but the technical and technological support of design organizations and other urban users did not allow to implement effectively the results of three-dimensional modeling in the operated information systems that time.
Since 2009, three-dimensional models of urban areas are constantly being implemented in the creation and development of the unified geospatial information environment. In modern conditions, issues of increasing the realism of the display of terrain objects have come to the fore.
PROSPECTS FOR USING THE 3D-MODEL OF MOSCOW
Three-dimensional urban space is a different view of the current and future challenges for the city's information development, an innovative approach to implementation of city’s life support solutions, and a new level of departmental and interdepartmental interaction. Areas of three-dimensional modeling are architecture, transport infrastructure, landscape design and greening. Solutions are being found to the problems of operational and long-term planning, implementation of control functions, law and order, measures to prevent emergencies, implementation of public services, management and economic development, and the tourism industry.
The transition from separate territorial models to a General detailed model of the entire city has become particularly important for the purposes of creating the appearance of the unified three-dimensional urban space.
Until mid-2018 when modeling an urban area, we used the same type of photo textures for typical buildings and similar ones for non-typical ones. In addition, architectural dominants were designed with heavy, detailed textures. Despite the external similarity with the objects of the area, such modeling did not reflect the reality. Many models of buildings did not show the correct functionality of the first floors. When working interactively with large amounts of information, technical and technological problems have become obvious. Therefore, the optimization of the huge array of available data became the transition stage to meet modern requirements.
ARCHITECTURAL AND LANDSCAPE MODELING
The working name of the three-dimensional model of Moscow is the Architectural and landscape model. It is named by this term in the official documents. The task of Mosgorgeotrest is to develop and update it. The model is a comprehensive information resource including the following thematic information cartographic layers:
Two priority development directions of three-dimensional modeling of Moscow were determined as basic conditions that have territorial principle, depend on the efficiency of input data and information processing features:
SOURCE DATA FOR CREATING AND UPDATING THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF MOSCOW
As the source data for creating and maintaining a three-dimensional model of Moscow, the information resources of the Unified cartographic groundwork for Moscow and the results of other cartographic works conducted by Mosgorgeotrest are used.
The main ones are:
- digital map background of scale 1:10000
- digital topographic maps of scale 1:2000
- three-dimensional models of terrain, tunnels, bridge spaces, and detailed roofs
- resources of the Remote Sensing Data Bank of Moscow
- materials of mobile and ground-based laser scanning.
Three-dimensional modeling of the territory of Moscow
As part of the execution of the state task on behalf of The Moscow Committee for Architecture and Urban Planning on the topic "Creating and updating architectural and landscape models of the city of Moscow", the following works are performed by Mosgorgeotrest:
- updating basic three-dimensional models of buildings and terrain
- creating and updating thematic information map layers
- modeling of renovation districts and new objects at the stage of completed construction
- creation of actual photogrammetric model for the territory of New Moscow (Troitsky and Novomoskovsky administrative districts).